Irish say yes to EU pact, now seek EU growth deal
The treaty's approval, after weeks of nervousness in Dublin and Brussels, relieves some pressure on EU financial chiefs as they battle to contain the eurozone's debt crisis. But critics said the tougher deficit rules would do nothing to stimulate desperately needed growth in bailed-out Ireland, Portugal and Greece, nor stop Spain or Italy from requiring aid too.
And a stern-faced Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny agreed, stressing in his victory speech that Ireland's decision would strengthen his hand as he seeks, with many other European nations, to shift Germany in its stubborn resistance to more aggressive measures to boost growth through government spending.
"I have consistently argued that budget rules alone will not be enough to overcome the economic crisis that faces Europe. They must go hand in hand with a real and concrete growth program for Europe," Kenny said in a nationally televised press conference on the steps of his central Dublin office.
Kenny said EU and European Central Bank chiefs must agree on a European-wide new system for managing the toxic banking debts that brought Ireland to the edge of bankruptcy in 2010 and now threaten to do the same to Spain. Ireland long has pressed EU partners, particularly Germany, in vain to permit partial writedowns of Irish banking debts that could ultimately cost Irish taxpayers an estimated 68 billion ($85 billion) and have already given Ireland the worst deficits in Europe.
Kenny later spoke with German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Europe's leading champion of austerity. Merkel welcomed Ireland's willingness to vote yes to more cuts as an outcome that "deserves particular recognition and respect." And she mirrored Kenny's call for new growth initiatives, saying debt and deficit reduction "must go hand in hand with the strengthening of forces for growth and competitiveness in the economies of the eurozone."
German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said all EU nations should follow Ireland's example and speedily ratify the treaty, which 25 nations signed in February and which is supposed to come into force by early 2013.
"The fiscal compact stands for long-term financial policy good sense. If all of Europe decisively commits itself to this course, we will be rewarded with new confidence," he said.
The result of Thursday's referendum represented a surprisingly strong victory for Kenny, who courted unpopularity by insisting that Ireland already four years into a brutal austerity program that has slashed 15 percent from many workers' incomes had no choice but to vote in support of yet more cuts and tax hikes.
And when the official result was announced in Dublin Castle, victorious campaign officials engaged in none of the cheers, shouts and hugs normally associated with the occasion.
"There was nobody from the 'yes' camp jumping up and down," observed Gerry Adams, leader of the Irish nationalist Sinn Fein party, which campaigned against the deal.
Government ministers emphasized that voters' anxiety about the parlous state of the economy with unemployment stuck on 14.3 percent and hundreds of thousands of households trapped in negative equity colored their every step on the campaign trail.
"The astonishing thing about this campaign was that lots of people voted yes with a heavy heart, and many voted no with a heavy heart. Both sides were really concerned about growth and employment," said Ireland's minister for social protection, Joan Burton, who has overseen cuts in many welfare payments.
Overall, about half of Ireland's 3.13 million registered voters participated in Thursday's referendum, a typical turnout in an officially neutral country that is constitutionally required to hold a referendum on each European treaty.
Public rejection could have blocked Ireland from receiving new EU loans once its 2010 bailout money runs out next year. It also would have sent political shockwaves through other eurozone members, where anger against austerity and bank bailouts runs similarly high but citizens are denied the chance to vote on the treaty. The other 24 signatories are ratifying it through their parliaments.
During the campaign, Kenny warned that rejection would mean even worse austerity, because Ireland would suffer more credit downgrades and lose its key EU source of funding.
The treaty proposes that all members who ratify it should reduce their annual deficits to no more than 0.5 percent of gross domestic product. The current eurozone limit is 3 percent of GDP. Ireland is committed to cutting its way back to that level by 2015.
Opponents of the treaty argued that the new 0.5 percent deficit limit would force Ireland to keep cutting until perhaps 2020, when greater state investment to stimulate the economy was required. The government countered that much would depend on whether Ireland could keep growing its economy against the tide of austerity.
Ireland, unlike much of Europe, has recorded a faint pulse of growth over the past year thanks to strong exports by nearly 1,000 foreign high-tech companies based in Ireland. But the domestic economy with consumers reducing their own debts and salting away savings after a decade of Celtic Tiger extravagance has shrunk for four straight years.
Ireland has posted the EU's worst deficits since 2009, including an EU-record 32.4 percent in 2010 and 13.1 percent last year. Both figures were greatly inflated by the exceptional costs of Ireland's decision to nationalize five of its six banks rather than see any collapse. That debt burden overwhelmed Ireland's national finances and pushed the nation into the bailout zone in 2010. Ireland's expected repayments to international bondholders and central banks, plus decades of related interest charges, represent 19,000 ($23,500) for every man, woman and child.